Category: James

Embodying Divine Wisdom – Lectionary Reflection for Pentecost 17B (James 3-4)

James 3:13-4:8 New Revised Standard Version

13 Who is wise and understanding among you? Show by your good life that your works are done with gentleness born of wisdom. 14 But if you have bitter envy and selfish ambition in your hearts, do not be boastful and false to the truth. 15 Such wisdom does not come down from above, but is earthly, unspiritual, devilish. 16 For where there is envy and selfish ambition, there will also be disorder and wickedness of every kind. 17 But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, willing to yield, full of mercy and good fruits, without a trace of partiality or hypocrisy. 18 And a harvest of righteousness is sown in peace for those who make peace.

Those conflicts and disputes among you, where do they come from? Do they not come from your cravings that are at war within you? You want something and do not have it; so you commit murder. And you covet something and cannot obtain it; so you engage in disputes and conflicts. You do not have, because you do not ask. You ask and do not receive, because you ask wrongly, in order to spend what you get on your pleasures. Adulterers! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world becomes an enemy of God. Or do you suppose that it is for nothing that the scripture says, “God yearns jealously for the spirit that he has made to dwell in us”? But he gives all the more grace; therefore it says,

“God opposes the proud,
    but gives grace to the humble.”

Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded.

(Verses omitted by lectionary are in italics)

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                The Letter of James is widely considered to be an expression of Jewish wisdom literature (there is a similarity in style to the deuterocanonical Wisdom of Solomon). Of course, this is a Christianized form, but it is rooted in the larger Jewish wisdom tradition. As such, James focuses on how we live out the life of faith. He asks the question, “who is wise and understanding among you?” (vs. 13). Then he offers his word of advice, if you are wise then live accordingly. You might say that James is concerned about orthopraxis. Now, according to James, there is more than one kind of wisdom. Different forms of wisdom relate to their point of origin. That is a primary concern in this passage. There is a divine form of wisdom and one that is earthly and unspiritual. The call here then is to embrace the wisdom from above which is marked by works of gentleness rather than being inspired by envy and selfish ambition.

                One thing we learn from James is that he understands the world in which we live. He knows that it is filled with challenges and temptations that can lead us away from what God would have us do and be. So, here in our reading for the Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost James contrasts these two forms of wisdom, one divine and the other earthly. What we read here is an extension of what we read for the Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost, where we hear James ask: “Can a fig tree, my brothers and sisters, yield olives, or a grapevine figs? No more can saltwater yield fresh” (Jms. 3:12). This helps us understand James’ view of “works” in the Christian life. Works are, for him, the ethical life. This life is rooted in faith/wisdom. So, the form of faith/wisdom we embrace will determine the direction of our lives. The choice, apparently, is ours.

                According to James, the way of divine wisdom includes these qualities: purity, peaceableness, gentleness, a willingness to yield, is full of mercy and good works, no partiality (that is a topic of chapter 2), and no hypocrisy. You can see some overlap with Paul’s fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22). For those who embrace this wisdom, which is expressed by peace, they will see a harvest of righteousness.

                So far all is good, but peace might not be the dominant experience in James’ churches. As we open chapter 4, James asks the reader about the conflicts present amongst them. We already know from chapter 2 that the congregations were dealing with issues of partiality for the wealthy and against the poor. Then in chapter 3, he addresses the dangerous use of the tongue. Now, having raised the question of the two forms of wisdom, one divine and the other earthly, he asks the reader where all of these conflicts come from. Now, for James, this is a rhetorical question. He already knows the answer. It is the “earthly” wisdom marked by envy and selfish ambition that leads them astray. These “qualities” lead to cravings that are at war within them. In making that comment, James seems to recognize that the members of these congregations are wrestling with these two forms of wisdom, with the earthly wisdom seemingly winning out. Thus, because they don’t get what they desire, they commit murder. When I read this I begin to wonder about the state of the early church. What is going on here? I understand a bit of envy and gossip and maybe partiality, but murder?  At a minimum, their desire for things they cannot have leads to conflict and dissension within the ranks. Then James takes an interesting turn. He tells them that they do not have because they do not ask. What does James have in mind here? Is this a reference to prayer? Or simply a reminder that if we ask for something our spiritual siblings might be willing to share? Or could both be in play? Ultimately, they do not receive what they ask for because they ask wrongly, determined to spend on pleasure. Do you get the sense that this community is enticed by a hedonistic culture to join in its ways? Instead of following the ways of Jesus, do they follow the ways of some other god?

                The lectionary invites us to skip over verses 4-6, which picks up the image of God being jealous of the affections of the people, or so it seems. We might not like this image, but if taken in context is it not understandable. That is, God cares enough to want to be in a monogamous relationship with the people of God. What James does here is draw on the concept of the marriage covenant, and in doing so he suggests that if God is faithful to the covenant, then should not the other part, whom he calls adulterers. James draws a firm line between God and the world. To be a friend with the world is to be at enmity with God. That is, if you want to be a friend of the world then you are an enemy of God. This sounds rather drastic. After all, doesn’t God love the world (Jn. 3:16)? So, what does God want from us?  Should we, like the Amish, separate ourselves from the world? I don’t know many Christians who take that step. I haven’t. I live a pretty normal life in the world. Yes, I’m a Christian and seek to follow the ways of Jesus but I haven’t gone off into the desert to live as a hermit. Nevertheless, James draws on this image of God, the jealous husband to call the people back to living according to divine wisdom. This involves, so James tells us, by submitting ourselves to God, for as Scripture says: “God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble” (Prov.3:34). Perhaps it’s the image of God being jealous, but these verses are omitted by the lectionary creators, but maybe we need to take note of them.

                The reading closes out with verses 7 and 8a. Here we are asked to submit ourselves to God. I’m reminded here that the word Muslim refers to one who submits to God. So, James is inviting us to be Muslims, ones who submit to God. If we do this then we can resist the devil who will flee from us, if we submit to God and therefore stand firm. Yes, if we draw near to God (another way of saying submitting ourselves God) then God will draw near to us. As I read this, I sense that in James’ mind, God gives us room to choose our own, without coercion. We can submit to God and draw near, or we can keep God at a distance. The choice is ours. If we do not choose the ways of God, there will be consequences, as we see here in James’ letter. Now, if you like, you can stop here or continue with verse 8, which says something about washing our hands. In a time of COVID, it might be worth mentioning the value of cleansing hands as a sign of a pure heart. Ultimately, what James would have us do is embody Divine wisdom in the way we live our lives.

Dangerous Words – Lectionary Reflection for Pentecost 16B (James 3)

James 3:1-12 New Revised Standard Version

Not many of you should become teachers, my brothers and sisters, for you know that we who teach will be judged with greater strictness. For all of us make many mistakes. Anyone who makes no mistakes in speaking is perfect, able to keep the whole body in check with a bridle. If we put bits into the mouths of horses to make them obey us, we guide their whole bodies. Or look at ships: though they are so large that it takes strong winds to drive them, yet they are guided by a very small rudder wherever the will of the pilot directs. So also the tongue is a small member, yet it boasts of great exploits.

How great a forest is set ablaze by a small fire! And the tongue is a fire. The tongue is placed among our members as a world of iniquity; it stains the whole body, sets on fire the cycle of nature, and is itself set on fire by hell. For every species of beast and bird, of reptile and sea creature, can be tamed and has been tamed by the human species, but no one can tame the tongue—a restless evil, full of deadly poison. With it we bless the Lord and Father, and with it we curse those who are made in the likeness of God. 10 From the same mouth come blessing and cursing. My brothers and sisters, this ought not to be so. 11 Does a spring pour forth from the same opening both fresh and brackish water? 12 Can a fig tree, my brothers and sisters, yield olives, or a grapevine figs? No more can salt water yield fresh.

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                The tongue is a dangerous organ. If we’re not careful our tongues can do a lot of damage. By that, I mean, the words we speak. Growing up I learned the adage that “Sticks and stones can break my bones, but names can never hurt me.” I will confess that it never gave me much comfort. Of course, if I’m honest I could give as well as take in this matter. As I look back across my life, I’m horrified by things I’ve said, whether jokes or just mean statements. To my embarrassment, it is often my family who have borne the brunt of my statements. I wish I could say I no longer say things that hurt, but that would be dishonest. Unfortunately, we seem to be living in an age when in reaction to calls for sensitivity people seem to feel empowered to say whatever, whenever, they want. If it hurts, all the better. The saddest thing is that many Christians feel empowered to engage in such efforts. Apparently, they have never read the Letter of James (or they have taken to heart Luther’s dictum that it is an epistle of straw).

                James clues us in on the target of his message—the teachers. He tells them those who teach will be judged with greater strictness. Mistakes will happen, but mistakes made when speaking can have unfortunate consequences. It would seem that James is not too confident that teachers and preachers can keep their speech appropriate. But, if they can bridle the tongue they can keep the whole body in check. The tongue might be small, but it is mighty. We’ve seen this play out through history. The pen might be mightier than the sword, but demagogues have always taken the cake when it comes to such things. Eloquence can be used for good or for ill. We think of great orators who have called forth the people to do great things. Think of Franklin Roosevelt whose messages whether in person or on the radio gave a nation confidence that it could conquer the depression and its enemies overseas. But Hitler was quite the speaker as well and look what happened with him.

                So, the tongue is small, but like the rudder of a large ship, it can steer the body and the community where it desires. So be careful with what you say. In the second half of verse 5, which in the NRSV opens a new paragraph, James speaks of a forest fire set by a small fire. Growing up in the west, where forest fires were common, the message of Smokey the Bear was simple:  Only you can prevent forest fires. A campfire might look as if it’s out, but a small ember can, with a bit of breeze stir and if something flammable is near can quickly grow. The same with a cigarette butt thrown out of a car window into a bit of dry grass. Most of the fires I grew up with were challenging but rarely got too far out of hand. But things have changed with drought and increased heat, the forests are dry and brittle and can easily catch fire and spread. I no longer live out west, but I understand the dangers. That, says James, is the power of the tongue. This fire, says James, has been set by hell itself.

                James isn’t finished illustrating his point regarding the power of the tongue. It is like a rudder that directs a ship. It is like a spark that lights a forest fire. Finally, James draws on the image of a domesticated animal. According to James any animal, bird, or reptile can be tamed, but the same is not true of the tongue. This brings us full circle to the opening illustration of a horse that is kept in check with a bridle in its mouth. In that opening illustration, James suggested that the people of God need to bridle their tongues so that their bodies can be brought under control. Here, in this final image, we are reminded that animals can be tamed/domesticated, so why not the tongue?

                As for the tongue, not only is it seemingly untamable, but it is also “a restless evil, full of deadly poison.” Remember that it is also like a fire set by hell. This seems to be parallel that image. Now for a more definitive word about the tongue. It can be used to bless God. Yes, we can use it in the church to sing songs of praise and offer prayers to God. However, it can also be used to curse those who are made in the image of God. How true is this! How often do we go from church, having sung God’s praises, and then afterward cursed our neighbor or even a family member?

                Part of the message here concerns self-control. It is a message that would seem to be appropriate for our age. Especially in an age of social media where we can “speak our minds” without having to face the persons we are speaking of; this becomes even more imperative. We have seen all manner of hate speech, bullying, and misinformation being spread with few if any consequences. This is often dangerous. I’m thinking here of the responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Through various channels, we’ve heard vaccines misrepresented, even as unproven and often dangerous remedies are bandied about. For those who get their news and information from social media, this can prove deadly to themselves and to others. When it comes to hateful speech, we might want to ask ourselves if we would say the same thing to a persons’ face. As James puts it, from the same mouth can come blessings and curses, but this should not be so. Indeed!

                What is said here reiterates what we heard James share in chapter 1: “If any think they are religious, and do not bridle their tongues but deceive their hearts, their religion is worthless” (Jms. 1:26). It is true that none of us is perfect, and we will find ourselves cursing those whom God has created in God’s likeness, but unless we wish to indulge in a worthless religion, James’ word of wisdom is to bridle the tongue. That is, engage in a bit of self-control. That especially goes for those called to teach. So, remember James the question James asks of his readers (us): “Does a spring pour forth from the same opening both fresh and brackish water? (vs. 11). The answer is, of course, no. Just to make sure we get the point, does a fig tree produce olives, or does a grapevine produce figs? The answer is, of course, no to both! So, watch what you say! Words do hurt and they destroy. As the Book of Proverbs reminds us: “When words are many, transgression is not lacking, but the prudent are restrained in speech” (Prov. 10:19).

Jesus Doesn’t Play Favorites – Lectionary Reflection for Pentecost 15B (James 2:1-17)

Diego Rivera Mural, Detroit Institute of Art

James 2:1-17 New Revised Standard Version

                2 My brothers and sisters, do you with your acts of favoritism really believe in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ? For if a person with gold rings and in fine clothes comes into your assembly, and if a poor person in dirty clothes also comes in, and if you take notice of the one wearing the fine clothes and say, “Have a seat here, please,” while to the one who is poor you say, “Stand there,” or, “Sit at my feet,” have you not made distinctions among yourselves, and become judges with evil thoughts? Listen, my beloved brothers and sisters. Has not God chosen the poor in the world to be rich in faith and to be heirs of the kingdom that he has promised to those who love him? But you have dishonored the poor. Is it not the rich who oppress you? Is it not they who drag you into court? Is it not they who blaspheme the excellent name that was invoked over you?

                        8 You do well if you really fulfill the royal law according to the scripture, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” But if you show partiality, you commit sin and are convicted by the law as transgressors. 10 For whoever keeps the whole law but fails in one point has become accountable for all of it. 11 For the one who said, “You shall not commit adultery,” also said, “You shall not murder.” Now if you do not commit adultery but if you murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. 12 So speak and so act as those who are to be judged by the law of liberty. 13 For judgment will be without mercy to anyone who has shown no mercy; mercy triumphs over judgment.

                        14 What good is it, my brothers and sisters, if you say you have faith but do not have works? Can faith save you? 15 If a brother or sister is naked and lacks daily food, 16 and one of you says to them, “Go in peace; keep warm and eat your fill,” and yet you do not supply their bodily needs, what is the good of that? 17 So faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead.

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                If we’re honest, we all play favorites. There are some people we really don’t enjoy being around and others we really want to be with. I remember when church growth theory was all the rage, with its message of homogeneity. In other words, churches grow when we target specific groups of people because “birds of a feather flock together.” There is truth to this observation. But, apparently, that’s not the way it works with Jesus, who does play favorites. Though, he does seem to prefer bringing Peter, James, and John with him when he goes off by himself. At least that’s what I’ve noticed when reading the Gospels. Nevertheless, according to James, Jesus doesn’t want us to show favoritism.

                Here in James 2, Jesus begins with a word about favoritism and then our reading ends with a word about faith being dead if it’s not accompanied by works. Once again, we see why Luther preferred Paul to James. Paul indeed focuses on grace and faith rather than works, but I’m not sure Paul would disagree with what James writes in this letter. After all, Paul takes the Corinthians to task for their classist behavior.  But, we’re not focused here on Paul. Instead, we need to listen to what James has to say about wealth, partiality, murder and adultery, and more (the lectionary creators put verses 11-13, where we read the word about murder and adultery, in parentheses. So if you don’t like those verses you can skip over them). Behavior, in James’ estimation, is the best expression of one’s faith in Jesus.

                At first sight, this is a word about egalitarianism that targets the wealthy, whom James warns the church against favoring over the poor. However, James not only warns against favoring the wealthy, who could be benefactors to the life of the church (what church wouldn’t like to have a few wealthy donors to endow the budget), but he also speaks of God’s decision to favor the poor. Much like the Magnificat, in which God brings down the rich and powerful and lifts up the poor and lowly (Lk. 1:46-55), James affirms God’s “preferential option for the poor.” What James does here in chapter 2 is contrast the way the rich and poor are often treated by society (including the church). It is to their shame as the church if they welcome with open arms the person with gold rings and fine clothes and then ignore the one who is poor and wearing dirty clothes.  The persons James has in mind here are probably field hands and other workers who come to church after work, tired, hungry, and yes dirty. Whether slave or free, they likely weren’t paid well. Thus, they make up the working poor who are taken advantage of by the wealthy whom the church leaders may have wanted to honor by letting them take the seat of honor, while the poor are pushed to the side where they must either stand or sit on the floor. So, by showing partiality and making distinctions in this way, they become judges with evil thoughts. What should a preacher do with a passage like this? [A note here, in 2021 (when this reflection first appears), the text is due to be read on Labor Day, making this an interesting conversation for that day.] 

                One takeaway is that James provides the foundation for claiming God’s “preferential option for the poor.” In making his point here concerning the poor, James reflects the message of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount, where Jesus declares: “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (Mt.5:3). God takes the side of the underdog, the one who is marginalized. The wealthy, well, they know how to take care of themselves. As for the poor, they are oppressed by the rich. In fact, James suggests that readers of this letter  are themselves the subject of abuse on the part of the rich who drag them into court. So, in honoring the rich and powerful who oppress they give honor to those who blaspheme the God who welcomes the poor. Thus, maybe Jesus does play favorites!

                James brings the Law into the conversation, and that is the Royal Law, that one should love one’s neighbor as oneself (Lev. 19:18). If you show partiality—toward the rich—then you transgress that law. This is on the same level as adultery and murder. So, the passage concludes with a reminder that faith without works is dead. It does nothing to say to a brother or sister who is naked and lacks daily food to “go in peace; keep warm and eat your fill.”  Such faith is dead. It has no value. As Robert Wall points out, for James “the mere profession of orthodox faith does not save anyone if it is not demonstrated by works of mercy” [Connections,  p. 292]. Those who wish the preacher would stick to the “Gospel” and not engage in politics, probably won’t appreciate this word from James. Nevertheless, what sounds a lot like what some call the “Social Gospel,” if we take James seriously should we not say that this is the Gospel? That is, unless the Gospel is simply a matter of getting to heaven when we die, then surely the Gospel has something to say about how we live together in this world, in the here and now. That includes recognizing that Jesus doesn’t play favorites, except in lifting up those who are poor and marginalized, while bringing down those who are high and mighty!

Pure Religion – Lectionary Reflection for Pentecost 14B (James 1)

James 1:17-27 New Revised Standard Version

17 Every generous act of giving, with every perfect gift, is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change. 18 In fulfillment of his own purpose he gave us birth by the word of truth, so that we would become a kind of first fruits of his creatures.

19 You must understand this, my beloved: let everyone be quick to listen, slow to speak, slow to anger; 20 for your anger does not produce God’s righteousness. 21 Therefore rid yourselves of all sordidness and rank growth of wickedness, and welcome with meekness the implanted word that has the power to save your souls.

22 But be doers of the word, and not merely hearers who deceive themselves. 23 For if any are hearers of the word and not doers, they are like those who look at themselves in a mirror; 24 for they look at themselves and, on going away, immediately forget what they were like. 25 But those who look into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and persevere, being not hearers who forget but doers who act—they will be blessed in their doing.

26 If any think they are religious, and do not bridle their tongues but deceive their hearts, their religion is worthless. 27 Religion that is pure and undefiled before God, the Father, is this: to care for orphans and widows in their distress, and to keep oneself unstained by the world.

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                The word purity has become problematic. This is due in large part to the “purity” culture present in some parts of the Christian community. That culture is focused largely on keeping young women “pure” so they can become good wives (virgins). That’s not what James has in mind when writes in his letter to the“Twelve Tribes of the Dispersion” about “pure and undefiled religion.” What James is interested in is relationships that reflect God’s wisdom. We see this concern present throughout the letter.

                Having worked our way through the Ephesian letter, we will spend the next five weeks with James. Not everyone has appreciated James’ words of wisdom. Consider that Martin Luther called it an “epistle of straw” because, in his mind, it didn’t preach Christ. Luther preferred Paul’s emphasis on grace to James’ message that “faith without works” being dead (Jms. 2:17). I’m not sure that Paul and James were as far apart in their thinking as we usually presume, but his message that is rooted in the Wisdom tradition seems appropriate to our times. In fact, if we followed his lead, we might find an antidote to much that ails us in this twenty-first century.

                So who is this letter writer who calls himself “James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ?” That’s a question that needs some attention since this is the first of five reflections on lectionary readings from James. So, I will begin with an introduction to the letter. As I noted, the author introduces himself simply as “James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ” (Jms.1:1). He addresses the letter to the “twelve tribes in the Dispersion.” Although this would appear to suggest that James is writing to Jews, we don’t know who James is targeting. Jewish Christians would have been a receptive audience since James is drawing on Wisdom traditions. It’s impossible to precisely identify the author, though Tradition suggests that the author is James, the Lord’s brother, who was a primary leader of the church in Jerusalem. The author doesn’t make that claim, but it seems like a good possibility If this is true, then the letter is rather early because Josephus records that James was martyred in 62 CE. The only other viable option is someone writing in the name of James, which would allow for a later date of authorship. There are arguments on both sides, but for our purposes, I will stick with Tradition. As for the destination, that’s unclear as well. What is clear is that this is an example of wisdom literature with a special focus on ethics. We might call James’ focus one of “orthopraxis” over “orthodoxy.”

                Our reading begins in verse 17 with an acknowledgment that “every generous act of giving, with every perfect gift, is from above.” God is the source of every perfect gift because God is not fickle or capricious. Of the “Father of Lights,” James tells us that there “is no variation or shadow due to change” (Jms. 1:17). That doesn’t necessarily mean that God is “immutable” or “impassible,” to use two Greek philosophical terms that have found a home within Christianity. God can and does respond, adapting to situations, giving us options. Besides, the universe isn’t static, so how could God be static? Nevertheless, according to James God is faithful. That’s a message deeply rooted in the covenant that defines God’s relationship with Israel, a covenant that James surely has in mind as he writes
this word.

                Having been given birth by the word of truth, the readers (we are secondary readers) are the first fruits of this new work of God. As such, James gives words of guidance as we live into this word of truth. First of all, “be quick to listen, slow to speak, slow to anger.” Later in the letter, James will speak to the destructive power of the tongue, but for now, the word is to listen first, then speak if necessary. Don’t be quick in your anger. Don’t overreact and scream and yell. After all, anger is doesn’t produce divine righteousness. Therefore, get rid of the “stuff” that soils your life, that is all forms of wickedness and sordidness. If this was written to Gentiles, as Paul’s letters were, James might be focused on their former “pagan” lifestyle. But, assuming the audience is made up of Jewish Christians, it is a recognition that we are all liable to such disabilities! Instead, of allowing such wickedness to define your life, welcome “with meekness the implanted word that has the power to save your souls.”

                James envisions God planting the word that saves us in our hearts, even as a farmer or gardener plants a seed in the ground so that it might take root and produce good fruit. We can compare this word with that of Jeremiah who speaks of the new covenant in which the law is written on the heart rather than stone (Jer.31:33). James goes on to speak of the law of liberty, so he likely has Jeremiah in mind.

                This message concerning the implantation of the word is followed by an imperative. “Be doers of the word, and not merely hearers who deceive themselves” (Jms. 1:22). This is no “once saved, always saved” vision of the Christian life in which one is now free to do as one pleases because they’re on the team without any chance of being cut. When the word is implanted in us, it is expected that it will bear fruit in our lives. James understands faith to be active, not passive. It doesn’t mean that God doesn’t initiate the process. After all, the word is implanted, but that should lead somewhere.

                Those who hear but don’t do, are like people who look in a mirror and walk away forgetting who they are. Those who look at the perfect law, which is the mirror, and persevere, don’t forget and as a result, they are blessed. Remember that this is a law that liberates. This does sound a bit different from what Paul had to say, but remember the audiences are different. In Galatians, the issue is circumcision as a prerequisite for membership in the community. Here the issue is behavior that reflects well the word of God implanted in us.

                In verse 26, James returns to the use of the tongue. Having already told us to be quick to listen and slow to speak, James tells the reader that if they think they’re religious but don’t bridle their tongues they deceive themselves. Indeed, their “religion is worthless.” As I read this, I look at myself and the way I speak, especially I speak out of anger. Living as we do in an “anti-PC” age when so many in our culture feel they are entitled to say whatever they please, whenever they please, James has a point here. That’s especially true when the people who feel entitled to say what they please also claim to be people of faith.

                Having laid bare this negative issue that has plagued the church from the beginning, James turns to a positive. This is what pure and undefiled religion should look like. It takes care of widows and orphans in their distress, as well as keeping oneself unstained from the world.

                I’ll first take up the word about widows and orphans. We know from history that early Christians were known for their care of widows and orphans. They would take in abandoned children who were left to die. As I write this, thousands of Afghan citizens are seeking asylum as the Taliban takes over. At the same time, I hear voices that supposedly defend “Christian values” in the United States calling them terrorists who should be abandoned. It doesn’t make sense to me. This isn’t pure and undefiled religion.

                After speaking of widows and orphans James calls on the readers to keep themselves unstained from the world. This sounds about “comeoutism,” which is a pattern in some quarters of the Christian world. Keep to yourself as a community so you don’t get contaminated by the broader culture. Perhaps a better way for us to read this passage is to think in terms of how our culture forms us. What values does our culture seek to implant in us that stand opposed to the “law of liberty”? After all, Paul recognized that even all things are lawful, not all things are beneficial (1 Cor. 10:23).

                For many in our world today the word “religion” has negative connotations. People prefer to be “spiritual” rather than “religious.” That’s because religion is understood in institutional terms, and institutional religion has a lot of problems. In fact, for many, Christianity as a religion, is defined by hypocrisy. So, who wants to be religious?

               When James uses the word religion, he has something different in mind. For him, true religion calls for guarding the tongue, caring for the poor, the widow, the orphan. As for keeping oneself separate from the world, it would be wise not to get caught up in the schemes of this world that are destructive to creation and people. As Martha
Moore-Keish writes: “To be a ‘word-doer’ is simply to love those whom the world has treated as unlovable. It is to look for the ones who are the most crushed by systems of power and oppression (widows and orphans in James’s day) and care for them. Rather than following the cyclical and power-hungry ways of the world, to be word-doers who embody ‘pure religion’ is to place ourselves as beacons of light in the darkness, even as God has shone light into the weary darkness of the world.” [James: Belief, pp. 77-78]. That is true religion!