1:1 Long ago God spoke to our ancestors in many and various ways by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom he also created the worlds. 3 He is the reflection of God’s glory and the exact imprint of God’s very being, and he sustains all things by his powerful word. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.
2:5Now God did not subject the coming world, about which we are speaking, to angels. 6 But someone has testified somewhere,“What are human beings that you are mindful of them,or mortals, that you care for them?7 You have made them for a little while lower than the angels;you have crowned them with glory and honor,8 subjecting all things under their feet.”
Now in subjecting all things to them, God left nothing outside their control. As it is, we do not yet see everything in subjection to them, 9 but we do see Jesus, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone.
10 It was fitting that God, for whom and through whom all things exist, in bringing many children to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 11 For the one who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one Father. For this reason Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers and sisters, 12 saying,
“I will proclaim your name to my brothers and sisters, in the midst of the congregation I will praise you.”
God once spoke through prophets, but now God speaks through the Son, who is the reflection of God’s glory and the “exact imprint of God’s very being.” This is the one through whom God created all things and who is the pioneer of our salvation. That is the starting point in the lectionary’s invitation to explore the message of the Book of Hebrews. This book, which has the look of a sermon or perhaps a circular letter is one of the more challenging and at times problematic books in the New Testament. It is problematic because it seems to carry a supersessionist message. That is, it emphasizes the Christian message at the expense of Judaism so that Christianity now replaces the Jewish people in God’s plans. Therefore, the Temple and the priesthood offer prefigurements of the work of Christ. For instance, in Hebrews, Jesus is identified with the priest-king Melchizedek. Though somewhat obscure today, except perhaps the famous definition of faith in chapter eleven, it has been a favorite of many down through the centuries.
Once upon a time tradition attributed authorship to Paul, even though this book is very different from anything that Paul wrote. The book itself does not carry any hint as to its authorship, though the many references to Old Testament figures and practices have led to the assumption that the author and audience were Jewish Christians. The Platonic elements suggest a similarity to the writings of Philo, which might suggest that the origins of the book are to be found in Alexandria. Though that suggestion is contradicted by the reference in Hebrews 13:24, which reads: “those from Italy send you greetings.” Ultimately, we do not know who wrote the book or where it originated. As for the date, the references to sacrificial practices in the present tense could suggest a date before the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. However, the suggestion that Jesus’ sacrifice supersedes the Temple sacrifices might suggest a date after the destruction of the Temple, though if the Temple had been destroyed would not be a clear reference to that event helped support the idea that Jesus supersedes the Temple. Again, we don’t know how to date the book. So, who might have written this text if Paul didn’t (and if the author was writing from Italy/Rome)? Some of the figures to whom this intriguing but sometimes dangerous text has been attributed include Barnabas, Silas, Epaphras, Luke, Apollos, or my favorite Priscilla. But, as Origin noted, only God knows for sure. [Stephen Farris, “Hebrews,” The Preacher’s Bible Handbook, pp. 328-329; Pamela Eisenbaum, “The Letter to the Hebrews,” The Jewish Annotated New Testament, 1st ed., p. 406]. As to the genre of the book, while it is often spoken of as a letter, it has more the feel of a sermon. Why was it written? Perhaps as a word of encouragement to a community struggling to hold things together. What we do know is that it is a thoroughly Christological document. As Stephen Farris notes, the sermon reminds the reader/hearer that “Jesus has traveled the journey before us, and therefore we can take the next step with confidence” [Farris, “Hebrews,” p. 331]. That is, he is both superior to angels and the pioneer of our salvation, and as we will see he is the high priest who acts on our behalf.
In this first of seven readings from Hebrews, taking us through chapter ten, the author of Hebrews introduces us to the primary subject of this book, the Son of God. This Son is the heir of all things and the one through whom God has chosen to speak in these last days. In this, the Son succeeds the prophets, through whom God once spoke. In making this declaration, Hebrews is telling us that Jesus brings us the final word from God. As we’ll see, Jesus is very different from his predecessors who were humans just like us. This spokesperson for God is the heir of all things and is the one through whom God created the worlds. He is the reflection of God’s glory, which suggests a connection to the embodiment of divine wisdom, as we see in the Wisdom of Solomon “For she is a breath of the power of God, and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty; therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her. 26 For she is a reflection of eternal light, a spotless mirror of the working of God, and an image of his goodness” (Wis. 7:25-26). Not only is Jesus a reflection of God’s glory, but he is the “exact imprint of God’s very being” who “sustains all things by his powerful word.” This is a very high Christology, suggesting divinity. Hebrews goes further to inform us that when he had finished making purification for sins (the subject of much that follows) he sat down at the right hand of God, “having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.” This word comes in the last days, the new age that Jesus has introduced. The message, therefore, has an eschatological element to it.
If the focus of the opening verses of this lectionary reading focuses on Jesus’ identity as Son of God, the second portion, taken from chapter 2, affirms his humanity, though exalted humanity. This passage draws from Psalm 8:4-6 (LXX). In Hebrews 1:4, the author proposes that the Son is superior to the angels and that he has inherited a name greater than theirs. The angels are servants of God, but “God did not submit the coming world, about which we are speaking to the angels” (Heb. 2:5). In support of this premise, the author turns to Psalm 8, a song that declares that while human beings might be made a little lower than the angels, God has crowned humanity with glory and honor and subjected all things under their feet. Hebrews takes this Psalm and applies it to Jesus, who according to our reading was made for a little while lower than the angels but is now crowned with glory. What was originally intended to speak of humans, in general, is now applied to Jesus, who is crowned with glory through his death, so that by God’s grace he might taste death for us all. In other words, through his sacrifice of himself, Jesus attains the status supposedly given to humanity. He does this on our behalf. All of this is fleshed out in great detail as we move through the book. All that we read concerning this work of Jesus, is rooted in the connection between his actions and those present in the Temple sacrifices. In this, he makes purification for our sins. So that what was enacted on Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement) on an annual basis, is done once and for all by Jesus. As the pioneer of our salvation, Jesus goes ahead of us, preparing the way by tasting death for us, so that we might share in God’s glory.
Hebrews tells us that it was fitting that God would bring many children to glory through the work of the pioneer of our salvation through his sufferings. As a result, we become his siblings— “For the one who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one Father. For this reason, Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers and sisters.” It is as his siblings that we share in the glory of God.
Image attribution: God reigning in majesty, from Art in the Christian Tradition, a project of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library, Nashville, TN. https://diglib.library.vanderbilt.edu/act-imagelink.pl?RC=55258 [retrieved September 26, 2021]. Original source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pantocr%C3%A0tor_de_Ta%C3%BCll.jpg.